Three Geological divisions:

  1. The peninsular block
  2. The Himalayas and other Peninsular Mountains
  3. Indo-Ganga-Brahmaputra Plain


  • Peninsualar block is made of gneisses (metamorphic) and granites (igneous).

Six physiographic divisions:

  1. The Northern and North-eastern Mountains
  2. The Northern Plain
  3. The Peninsular Plateau
  4. The Indian Desert
  5. The Coastal Plains
  6. The Islands

Northern and North-Eastern Mountains

Approximate length of the Great Himalayan range: 2500 KM. Width: 160-400 KM

Impact of Himalayas on the climate of India?

It can be divided into five sub-divisions:

  1. Kashmir (or Northwestern) Himalayas
  2. Himachal and Uttaranchal Himalayas
  3. Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas
  4. Arunachal Himalayas
  5. Eastern Hills and Mountains

Kashmir Himalayas

  • Ranges: Karakoram, Ladhakh, Zaskar, Pir Pinjal
  • Glaciers: Baltoro, Siachen
  • Passes: Zoji La (Great Himalayas), Banihal (Pir Pinjal), Photu La (Zaskar) and Khardung La (Ladakh)
  • Lakes: (freshwater) Dal and Wular; (saltwater) Pangong Tso and Tso Moriri
  • Pilgrimage: Vaishno Devi, Amarnath Cave, Charar-e-Sharif
  • They are also famous for Karewa formations which are useful for the cultivation of Zafran (a local variety of Saffron). Karewas are the thick deposits of glacial clay and other materials embedded with moraines.
  • Kashmir is located on the banks of Jhelum river.
  • Meanders is a typical feature associated with the rivers in this region.
  • In South, there are longitudinal valleys called duns; Jammu dun and Pathankot dun


Himachal and Uttarakhand Himalayas

  • Lies between rivers Ravi and Kali
  • Drained by two major river systems: Indus and Ganga
  • Northernmost part is an extension of the Ladakh desert, lies in Spiti.
  • Ranges: Great Himalayan Range, Lesser Himalayas (Dhaoladhar in HP and Nagtibha in Uttarakhand), Shivalik range
  • Pilgrimage: Gangotri, Yamunotri, Kedarnath, Badrinath, Hemkund Sahib and the five famous prayags (Refer to Panch Prayag)
  • Famous for hill stations: Dharamshala, Mussoorie, Shimla, Kaosani; Cantt.: Kasauli, Almora, Lansdowne, Ranikhet
  • The important distinguishing features of this area are the ‘Shivalik’ and ‘Dun formations’.
  • Important duns: Chandigarh-Kalka, Nalagarh, Dehra, Harike, Kota
  • Dehradun is the largest of all duns: Length – 35-45 KM, Width: 22-25 KM
  • Inhabited with the Bhotia They migrate to higher reaches (Bugyals) in summer and return to the valleys during winters.


Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas

  • Between Nepal Himalayas and Bhutan Himalayas.
  • Fast flowing rivers such as Tista
  • Peaks: Kanchenjunga
  • Tribe: Lepcha
  • Has a mixed population of Nepalis, Bengalis and tribals from Central India.
  • Importance: Due to the moderate slope, it is best suited for tea plantations. <India produces about 26 pc of tea in the world; second after China. Also, accounts for 12 pc of tea exports; fourth in the world.>
  • Duar formations are peculiar to this region.


Arunachal Himalayas

  • From Bhutan Himalayas to Diphu pass in the east.
  • Direction: Southwest to Northeast
  • Peaks: Kangtu and Namya Barwa
  • Rivers: Brahmaputra, Kameng, Subansiri, Dihang, Dibang and Lohit.
  • These rivers are perennial and have the highest hydro-electric power potential in the country.
  • Tribes: Monpa, Daffla, Abor, Mishmi, Nishi and Nagas
  • These communities practice shifting cultivation known as Jhumming.


Eastern Hills and Mountains

  • Direction: North to South
  • Ranges: Patkai Bum, Naga hills, Manipur hills, Mizo or Lushai hills
  • These are low hills
  • Tribes practice Jhum cultivation
  • Rivers: Barak. Most of the Nagaland rivers form a tributary of Brahmaputra. Rivers in eastern Manipur are the tributaries of Chindwin, which in turn is a tributary of the Irrawady of Myanmar.
  • Lake: Loktak
  • Loktak Lake: is an important lake in Manipur which is surrounded by mountains on all sides. It is the largest freshwater lake in northeastern India. Also called the only Floating Lake in the world due to floating masses of organic matter on it. It serves as a source for hydropower generation, irrigation and drinking water supply.
  • Keibul Kamjao National Park located in the Bishnupur district of Manipur is the only floating park in the world and is an integral part of the Loktak Lake. Home to the endangered Manipur Eld’s Deer or Brow-antlered Deer or Sangai or Dancing Deer.
  • Mizoram is also known as the ‘Molassis basin’ which is made up of soft unconsolidated deposits.

The Northern Plains

  • Formed by the alluvial deposits of rivers – Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra.
  • Length: 3200 KM; Width: 150-300 KM

Three main zones:

  1. Bhabar
  2. Tarai
  3. Alluvial Plains (Khadar and Bangar)


  • Narrow belt. 8-10 KM wide.
  • Paralllel to Shivalik at the break-up of the slope. Hence, streams and rivers deposit heavy rocks (and at times disappear) in this zone.


  • South of Bhabar. 10-20 KM wide.
  • Rivers re-emerge and create marshy and swampy conditions known as Tarai.

Alluvial Belt

  • South of Tarai.
  • Features of mature stage of fluvial erosional and depositional landforms such as sand bars, meanders, ox-bow lakes and braided channels. Riverine islands in Brahmaputra.
  • Brahmaputra takes a turn an almost 90 degree turn at Dhubri (Assam) before entering Bangladesh.


Peninsular Plateau

  • Bounded by the Delhi ridge, Rajmahal Hills, Gir range and Cardamom hills.
  • Made up of a series of patland plateaus: Hazaribagh, Palamu, Ranchi, Malwa, Coimbatore, Karnataka etc.
  • One of the oldest and most stable landmass of India.
  • Physiographic Features: Tors, block mountains, rift valleys, spurs, bare rocky structures, hummocky hills and quartzite dykes offering natural sites for water storage.
  • Black soil in western and northwestern parts.
  • Bhima fault in this region has frequent seismic activity (Lathur earthquake)
  • NW part also has ravines and gorges: Chambal, Bhind and Morena.

Three broad regions:

  1. Deccan Plateau
  2. Central Highlands
  3. Northwestern Plateau

Deccan Plateau

  • Bordered by Eastern Ghats, Satpura, Maikal range and Mahadeo hills
  • Important ranges: WG: Sahyadri, Nilgiri, Anaimalai and Caradamom hills; EG: Javadi hills, Palconda range, Nallamala Hills, Mahendragiri hills
  • EG and WG meet at Nilgiri hills.
  • Highest peak: Anaimudi (2695 m) on Anaimalai hills; Dodabetta (2637 m) on Nilgiri hills.
  • Rivers: Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri etc.

Central Highlands

  • Bounded by the Aravali and Satpura range.
  • Relic mountains, highly denuded and form discontinuous ranges.
  • Near Jaisalmer it is covered by the longitudinal sand ridges and crescent-shaped sand dunes called barchans.
  • Elevation: 700-1000 m
  • Banas, a tributary of Chambal, originates in the Aravalli. Other tributaries of Yamuna originate from the Vindhyan and Kaimur ranges.
  • Minerals in Chotanagpur plateau.


Northeastern Plateau

  • Extension of the main Peninsular plateau.
  • Meghalaya and Karbi Anglong plateau.
  • Megahalaya plateau: Garo hills, Khasi hills and Jaintia hills (named after the tribals inhabiting the region)
  • Rich in minerals like coal, iron, sillimanite, limestone and uranium.
  • Receives maximum rainfall from SW monsoon. Hence, Meghalaya plateau has a highly eroded surface. Cherrapuni and Myswarnam.


Indian Desert

  • Aka Marusthali
  • Northwest of the Aravali hills
  • Dotted with longitudinal dunes and barchans.
  • Low rainfall: >150 mm per year Low vegetation cover
  • Evidence that this area was under the sea during the Mesozoic era.
  • Features: mushroom rocks, shifting dunes and oasis.
  • Rivers are ephemeral: Luni. Brackish lakes. Inland drainage.


Coastal Plains

Two divisions:

  1. Western coastal plains
  2. Eastern Coastal Plains

Western Coastal Plains

  • Submerged coastal plain. Hence, a narrow belt. Narrow in middle and broader towards north and south.
  • Ports: Provides natural conditions for the development of ports and harbours due to submergence. Kandla, Mazagaon (Mumbai), JLN port Navha Sheva, Maramagao, Mangalore, Cochin etc.
  • Mumbai has the world’s largest natural harbour.
  • May be divided into: Kachchh and Kathiawar coast in Gujarat, Konkan coast, Goan coast and Malabar coast.
  • Rivers don’t form delta.
  • Kayals (Backwaters): Found in the Malabar coast. Used for fishing and inland navigation. Every year Nehru Trophy Vallamkali (boat race) is held in Punnamada Kayal in Kerala.


Eastern Coastal Plains

  • Broader
  • Emergent coast. Hence, less number of ports and harbours. Chennai, Vizag, Paradwip, Haldia.
  • Delta formation

The Islands

Two major Divisions:

  1. Andaman and Nicobar
  2. Lakshwadeep & Minicoy


Andaman and Nicobar

  • Two major island groups: Ritchie’s archipelago and the Labrynth island.
  • The group is divided into: Andaman in the North and Nicobar in the South.
  • Andaman and Nicobar separated by the Ten Degree channel.
  • Barren Island
  • Peaks: Saddle Peak (N.Andaman – 738 m), Mt. Diavolo (Middle Andaman – 515 m), Mt. Koyob (S Andaman – 460 m) and Mt. Thuiller (Great Nicobar – 642 m)
  • Coral deposits found
  • Convectional rainfalls and equatorial type of vegetation.

Lakshadweep and Minicoy

  • Entire group built of coral deposits.
  • Total of 36 islands of which 11 are inhabited.
  • Smallest UT
  • Minicoy is the largest island
  • Separated by the 9 Degree Channel, north of which is the Amini Island and to the south Canannore island.
  • These islands have storm beaches consisting of unconsolidated pebbles, shingles, cobbles and boulders.



Types of soil

1. Alluvial Soils 22 Most fertile, Sandy loam in texture,
Rich in Potash, Phosphoric Acid, Lime & Organic matter
Deficient in Nitrogen & Humus
2. Regur/Black Soils 30 Also classified as Chernozem. Clay content 50%
Rich in iron, lime & Aluminium
Poor in Nitrogen, Phosphorus & organic content
3. Red & Yellow Soils 28 Known as omnibus group.
Rich in oxides of iron
Poor in Nitrogen, Phosphorus & Humus
4. Laterite Soils 2.62 Not very fertile. Typical of tropical region with heavy rainfall
Rich in iron oxide & potash
Poor in nitrogen, phosphate & calcium
5. Arid Soils 6.13 Rich in phosphate
Poor in Nitrogen & humus
6. Saline Soils 1.29 Known as Usara, Reh or Kallar
Contain a large proportion of Sodium, Potassium & Magnesium
Poor in Nitrogen & Calcium
7. Peaty & Organic 2.17 Normally heavy & black in colour. Highly acidic.
Rich in organic matter
Poor in phosphate & potash
8. Forest Soils 7.94 Acidic with low humus content
Poor in potash, phosphorus & lime
1. Bolton of the east Ahmedabad
2. Manchester of South India Coimbatore
3. Granary of South India Thanjavur






National Parks of India
1. Wandur National Park Andaman & Nicobar
2. Kaziranga National Park Assam
3. Manas National Park Assam
4. Palamau National Park Jharkhand
5. Hazaribagh National Park Jharkhand (Rhinoceros)
6. Dachigam National Park J & K – Kashmir Stag (Hangul)
7. Hemis National Park J & K
8. Kishtwar National Park J & K
9. Silent Valley National Park Kerala
10. Eravikulam National Park Kerala
11. Bandhavgarh National Park M.P.
12. Kanha National Park M.P.
13. Madhav National Park M.P.
14. Pench National Park M.P.
15. Shivpuri National Park M.P. – Birds
16. Indravati National Park Chhattisgarh
17. Keoladeo National Park Rajasthan
18. Ranthambore National Park Rajasthan
19. Desert National Park Rajasthan
20. Sariska National Park Rajasthan
21. Namdapha National Park Arunachal Pradesh
22. Marine National Park Gujarat
23. Pin Valley National Park Himachal Pradesh








24. Bandipur National Park Karnataka
25. Nagarhole National Park Karnataka
26. Bannerghatta National Park Karnataka
27. Tadoba National Park Maharashtra
28. Boriveli National Park Maharashtra (or Sanjay Gandhi National Park)
29. Balpakram National Park Meghalaya
30. Nokrek National Park Meghalaya
31. Nandan Kanan National Park Orissa
32. Chandka Elephant Reserve Orissa
33. Simlipal Tiger Reserve Orissa
34. Corbett National Park Uttaranchal
35. Rajaji National Park Uttaranchal
36. Valley of Flower N. Park Uttaranchal
37. Nandadevi National Park Uttaranchal
38. Dudhwa National Park U.P.
39. Govind National Park U.P.


Wildlife Sanctuaries of India

1. Pakhal Wildlife Sanctuary Andhra Pradesh
2. Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary Tamil Nadu
3. Srisailam Wildlife Sanctuary Andhra Pradesh
4. Garampani Wildlife Sanctuary Assam
5. Kaimur wildlife Sanctuary Bihar (largest)
6. Dandeli Wildlife Sanctuary Karnataka
7. Periyar Wildlife sanctuary Kerala
8. National Chambal Wildlife Sanctuary M.P., U.P & Rajasthan
9. Great Indian Bustard Sanctuary Maharashtra (Ahmednagar)
10. Gomardha Wildlife Sanctuary Chhattisgarh
11. Harike Headworks Punjab
12. Jaldapara Wildlife sanctuary West Bengal
13. Sultanpur Bird Sanctuary Haryana
14. Raganathittu Wildlife Sanctuary Karnataka
15. Madumalai Sanctuary Tamil Nadu
16. Pulicat Sanctuary Andhra Pradesh
17. Chandraprabha Wildlife Sanctuary U.P (Varanasi)
18. Ranganthitoo Bird Sanctury Karnataka
19. Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary Tamil Nadu



Breeds of Cattle
1. Cow Gir, Sahiwal, Red Sindhi, Deoni (Andhra Pr.), Nagori, Rathi, Siri, Malvi,
Tharparkar. Exotic breeds – Holstein, Friesian, Jersey, Brown Swiss.
2. Buffalo Murrah, Bhadawari, Nagpuri, Mehsana, Jaffrabadi, Surti, Nali-Ravi.
3. Sheep Jaisalmeri, Pugal, Bikaneri, Marwari, Kathiawari.
4. Goats Jamnapuri, Barbari


High Yielding Varieties of Seed








1. Wheat Kalyan Sona, Sonalika, Arjun, Lerma, Sharbati Sonora, WL series.
2. Rice Padma, Jaya, IR-8, Hamsa, Krishna, Cauvery, Annapurna
3. Maize Ganga-101, Deccan Hybrid
4. Jowar CSV-1 to CSV-7
5. Ragi Sharda
6. Cotton V-797, Hybrid 4,5, Digvijay, Varalaxmi, Sanjay, Deviraj, Virnar.


Roads, Railways & Waterways in India

1. National Highways 67700 Km Broad Guage 46800 km
2. State Highways 137000 Km Meter Guage 13000 km
3. District Roads 12 Lakh Km Narrow Guage 3100 km
4. Village Roads 15 Lakh Km Total Railway guage 63200 km
5. Border Roads 30,000 Km No of Trains 13500
6. Total Roads 33 Lakh Km No of Stations 7100
7. Total Waterways 14500 Km Electrified route 28%


National Waterways

1. National Waterways-1 Allahabad-Haldia stretch of the Ganga-Bhagirathi-Hoogly system
2. National Waterways-2 Sadiya-Dhubri stretch of the Brahmaputra system
3. National Waterways-3 The west coast canal from Kottapuram to Kollam along with the
Udyogmandal & Champakar canals (All in Kerala).


Indian Railways, Headquarters
1. Nothern Raiway Delhi
2. Southern Railway Chennai
3. Eastern Raiway Kolkata
4. Western Railway Mumbai (Churchgate)
5. North-Western Railway Jaipur
6. North-Central Railway Allahabad
7. North-Eastern Railway Gorakhpur
8. North-East Frontier Railway Guwahati
9. East Coast Railway Bhubaneshwar
10. East Central Railway Hazipur
11. West Central Railway Jabalpur
12. Central Railway Mumbai (V.T)
13. South-Central Railway Secundarabad
14. South Eastern Railway Kolkata
15. South-Western Railway Bangalore
16. South-East Central Railway Bilaspur
India Pipelines
1. Naharkatiya Oilfield in Assam to Barauni refinery in Bihar via Noonmati – First pipeline
2. Barauni-Kanpur pipeline for transport of refined petroleum
3. Haldia-Maurgram-Rajbandh pipeline
4. Ankleshwar oilfield to Koyali refinery in Gujarat
5. Mumbai High Koyali pipeline
6. Hajira-Bijapur-Jagdishpur (HBJ) pipeline (1750 km). Extended from Bijapur to Dadri in U.P.






7. Kandla to Luni in U.P via Delhi for LPG transport (1250 Km)
Airways-Internatioanal Airports
1. Mumbai Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport (Sahar)
2. Delhi Indira Gandhi International Airport
3. Chennai Anna International Airport (Meenambakam)
4. Kolkata Subhash Chandra Bose International Airport
5. Ahmedabad Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel International Airport
6. Amritsar Raja Sansi Airport
7. Bangalore Needumbassery International Airport
8. Goa Dabolim International Airport
9. Guwahati Lokapriya Gopinat Bardoli International Airport
10. Hyderabad Rajiv Gandhi International Airport
11. Thiruvananthapuram Trivandrum International Airport
12. Kochi Nedumbassery International Airport.
India’s Foreign Trade
1. Petroleum, Oil, Lubricants (POL) 27 % 1. Gems & Jewellery 17 %
2. Pearls & Precious stones 9 % 2. Readymade Garments 13 %
3. Gold & Silver 8.5 % 3. Chemicals 11 %
4. Capital goods 12 % 4. Cotton Textile 8 %
5. Electronic goods 9 % 5. Machine & Transport 6 %
6. Chemicals 7 % 6. Agricultural Exports 13.5 %
7. Edible Oils 3 % 7.
8. Coke, Coal & briquettes 2 % 8.

Fish & Fish products lead agricultural exports accounting for 3.1 % of the total value.

India’s major trading partners

1. USA 11.6 %
2. UAE 5.0 %
3. China 5 .0%
4. UK 4.4 %
5. Belgium 4.1 %
6. Germany 3.9 %
7. Japan 3.1 %
8. Switzerland 2.7 %
9. Hongkong 3.4 %
10. Singapore 3.0 %



Cities located on Rivers

City River State
Agra Yamuna UP
Badrinath Alaknanda Uttranchal
Cuttack Mahanadi Orissa
Dibrugarh Brahmaputra Assam
Ferozpur Sutlej Punjab








Guwahati Brahmaputra Assam
Hyderabad Musi AP
Jabalpur Narmada MP
Kanpur Ganga UP
Kota Chambal Rajasthan
Lucknow Gomti UP
Ludhiana Sutlej Punjab
Nasik Godavari Maharashtra
Pandharpur Bhima Maharashtra
Patna Ganga Bihar
Sambalpur Mahanadi Orissa
Srinagar Jhelum J&K
Surat Tapti Gujarat
Tiruchirapalli Cauvery Tamil Nadu
Varanasi Ganga UP
Vijaywada Krishna AP


Industries of India
1. Iron & Steel IISCO has 3 plants at Kulti, Hirapur & Burnpur. Visvesvaraya Iron & Steel
Co is located on the bank of Bhadravati river in Karnataka.
Hindustan Steel Limited (HSL) at Bhilai, Durgapur & Bokaro.
2. Cotton Textile 4% of GDP. 3.5 Crore population employed.
3. Sugar Industry
4. Aluminum HINDALCO (Renukoot), INDAL (Alupuram, Hirakud, Belgaum), Madras
Industry Aluminium Company (MALCO, Mettur), BALCO (Korba), NALCO
5. Copper Smelting HCL is the main player & operates Khetri copper complex, Indian copper
complex (Ghatsila, Jharkhand), Malanjkhand copper project (Balghat,
M.P.), Taloja copper project (Raigad, Maharashtra).
6. Jute Textile Centers are Titagarh, budge-budge, Haora, Rishra, Serampore,
Bhadreshware, Shyamnagar.
7. Silk Textile Its varieties are Mulberry (88%), Eri (9%), Tassar (2%), Muga (1%)
8. Woolen Textile Punjab, Maharashtra & U.P account for 75% production. Dhariwal is most
important centre. Others are Amritsar, Ludhiana, Kharar.
9. Heavy Industry Heavy Engineering Corp Ltd (Ranchi), Tungabhadra Steel Products Ltd
(Karnataka), Bharat heavy plates & Vessels (Vishakhapatnam)
Mining & allied machinery corporation (Durgapur).
10. Machine Tools HMT (Bangalore, Pinjore in Haryana, Kalamassery in Kerala, Hyderabad,
Ajmer & Sri Nagar), Heavy Machine Tools (Ranchi), Machine Tools Corp
of India (Ajmer), National Instruments Factory at Kolkata.
11. Automobiles TELCO in Mumbai, Ashok Leyland in Chennai, Bajaj Tempo (Pune).
Defense vehicles are produced at Jabalpur.
12. Pesticides Hindustan Insecticides Ltd (Delhi, Kerala & Rasayani, Maharashtra)
Hindustan Organic Chemicals Ltd (Rasayani, Raigad & Kochi)
13. Cement Industry Top manufacturing states are M.P, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pr & Raj. Jamul
is largest plant of M.P. & Sawai Madhopur leads in Rajasthan
14. Leather Industry India is 3rd largest player after Italy & U.S.








15. Glass Industry Bahjoi & Naini (Both in U.P.) are famous for glass sheets & Firozabad for
16. Paper Industry Rajmundhry (Andhra Pr), Ballarpur (Maharshtra), Titagarh (Bengal)
Bhadravati, Dandeli (Karnataka), Hoshangabad (M.P)
17. Liquor Industry U.P. has more than 50% installed capacity. Maharashtra, A.P are others.
18. Aircraft industry Important centres are HAL-Bangalore, Lucknow, Hyderabad, Others are
Koraput (Orissa) & Nasik.
19. Railway Chittaranjan Locomotive works (Electric engines) – West Bengal
Equipments Diesel Locomotive works – Varanasi
Integral Coach Factory – Perambur, Tamil Nadu
Rail Coach Factory – Kapurthala, Punjab.
Diesel Componets Works – Patiala
Railway wheels & Axels – Yalahanka (Banalore) & Durgapur.
20. Ship Building Hindustan Shipyard (Vishakhapatnam), Garden-Reach Shipbuilders
(Kolkata), Mazagaon Dock (Mumbai), Goa Shipyard (Vasco).
21. Pharmaceuticals IDPL – Rhishikesh, Hyderabad, Gurgaon, Chennai, Muzzafarpur
Hindustan Antibiotics Ltd – Pimpri, Pune – first public sector undertaking
in this industry
22. Zinc & Lead Hindustan Zinc Ltd at Debari, Rajasthan (both zinc & lead)
23. Fertilizers FCI-Sindri
Industry National Fertilizers Limited – Nangal
Hindustan Fertilizer Corp Ltd- Namrup (Assam), Durgapur.
Rashtriya Chemicals & Fertilizers Ltd – Trombay, Thal
Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, U.P & Maharashtra are the 4 largest in order.
24. Heavy Electricals BHEL (Bhopal, Tiruchirapalli, Ramchandrapuram in A.P, Jammu,
Bangalore, Hardwar). Ms ABL at Durgapur.
Hindustan Cables Factory (Rupnarainpur, Bengal), Indian Telephone
industries (Bangalore), Bharat Electronics (Bangalore),
Electronics corporation of India (Hyderabad)

















Industrial Regions of India
4. Mumbai-Pune rgion Tata hydel stations at Khopali, Bhivpuri, Bhira & koyna
Solapur, Satara, Sangli & Ahmednagar
5. Hugli Industrial Belt From Naihati to Budge-Budge along left bank & Tribeni to
Nalpur along right bank. Other centres are Serampur, Rishra,
Shibpur, Kakinara, Shamnagar, Titagarh, Sodepur, Bansbaria,
Belgurriah, Triveni, Belur.





6. Bangalore-Tamil Nadu Pykara project supplies electricity. Salem, Madurai,
Tiruchirapalli, Mettur, Mysore, Mandya.
7. Ahmedabad-Vadodara Dhuvaran Thermal power station, Uttaran gas power station,
Ukai hydro project. Koyali, Anand, Khera, Surendranagar,
Rajkot, Surat, Valsad, Jamnagar
8. Chhotanagpur Region Chaibasa, Dhanbad, Sindri, Hazaribagh, Asansol, Durgapur,
Dalmianagar, Ranchi, Daltonganj.
9. Gurgaon Delhi Meerut Faridabad, Modinagar, Ambala, Agra, Mathura
Six Largest National Highways
National Highway Route Lengh Km
NH 7 Varanasi-Kanyakumari 2369
NH 6 Kolkata & Dhule via Raipur, Nagpur. 1932
NH 5 Baharagora-Chennai 1533
NH 2 Delhi-Kolkata 1490
NH 8 Delhi-Mumbai 1428
NH 17 Panvel-Edapally (Karnataka) 1270
Important National Highways
NH-1 Delhi to Amritsar via Ambala & Jallandhar 456
NH-1A Jallandhar & Uri via Jammu, Srinagar & Baramula
NH 22 Ambala to Shipkila on Indo china border 460
NH 28 A Pipra to Nepal border 68
NH 35 Barasat-Bongaigaon-Indo Bangladesh border 61
NH 39 Numaligarh-Indo Burma border. 436
NH 3 Agra to Mumbai via Gwalior
NH 4 Chennai with Thane
Important Industrial Centers of India
1. Ferozabad Glass Bangles
2. Mirzapur Pottery
3. Jaipur Gems Industry
4. Trivandrum Wood Carving
5. Kadi Mineral Oil
6. Korba Aluminium
7. Bhatinda Fertilizers







Racial Profile of India
1. Negritos Only on Andamans & Nicobar
2. Proto-Australoid Includes Tribal group of central & southern India. Veddahs,
Maleveddahs, Irulas, Sholgas considere true representative.
3. Mongoloids Garo, Khasi, Jaintia, Lipchas, Chakmas, Murmis, Naga & Dafla
4. Mediterranean Divided into: Palaeo-Mediterranean (or Dravidians) inhabiting





southern parts of India & True Mediterranean inhabiting northern &
western part of the country.
5. Brachycephals Characterized by broad heads. Coorgis & Parsis are representative.
They are divided into Alpinoids, Dinarics & Armenoids
6. Nordics/Indo-Aryans Inhabit parts of north India. They are mostly represented among the
upper castes in northern India esp in Punjab


Demographic Profile of India


S. Parameter Top in Parameter Bottom in Parameter
1. Population U.P, Maharasthra, Bihar, W. Sikkim, Mizoram, Arunachal
(1027 million) Bengal & Andhra Pr. Pradesh & Goa
Delhi (UTs) Lakshadweep (UT)
2. Population Density West Bengal (904), Bihar (880), Arunachal Pr (13), Mizoram,
(324 per/Sq km) Kerala, U.P, Punjab. Sikkim
Delhi Andaman & Nicobar.
3. Popln Growth Nagaland (64%), Sikkim Kerala (9.4%)
4. Growth Urban population Arunachal Pradesh Kerala
Dadra & Nagar haveli
5. Growth rural population Nagaland Tamil Nadu
6. Proportion of Urban Populn Goa (50%) Arunachal Pradesh (5%)
Dadra & Nagar Haveli
7. Average size of Villages Kerala (~15000 people) Arunachal (~200)
8. Sex Ratio (933) Kerala (1058) Haryana (861), Punjab &
Pondicherry Sikkim
Daman & Diu
9. Death Rate Orissa Kerala (6 per thousand)
10. Infant Mortality Rate Orissa Kerala
11. Literacy Kerala (91%), Mizoram, Goa, Bihar (47%), Jharkhand,
Maharashtra, Himachal Pradesh J&K, Arunachal Pr, U.P.
Lakshadweep (UT) Dadra & Nagar Haveli (UT)







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