Major characteristics of Alluvial Soils are as follows:
- They are immature and have weak profiles due to their recent origin.
- Most of the soil is sandy and clayey soils are not uncommon.
- They vary from loamy to sandy-loam in drier regions and clayey loam towards the delta.
- Pebbly and gravelly soils are rare. Kankar (calcareous concretions) beds are present in some regions along the river terraces.
- The soil is porous because of its loamy (equal proportion of sand and clay) nature.
- Porosity and texture provide good drainage and other conditions favorable for agriculture.
- These soils are constantly replenished by the recurrent floods.
Distribution of Alluvial Soils in India
- They occur all along the Indo-Gangetic-Brahmaputra plains except in few places where the top layer is covered by desert sand.
- They also occur in deltas of the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna, and the Cauvery, where they are called deltaic alluvium (coastal alluvium)
- Some alluvial soils are found in the Narmada, Tapi valleys, and Northern parts of Gujarat.
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